Total resep
76 2 8 
resep masakan
Mie Kocok Bandung
Mie yang khas dari kota Bandung
Tamale Pie Recipe - An Easy Recipe for Tamale Pie
Tamale Pie Recipe - An Easy Recipe for Tamale Pie
Chicken Lollipop
How to cook Chicken Lollipop
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
Culinary art is the art of cooking. The word "culinary" is defined as something related to, or connected with, cooking or kitchens. A culinarian is a person working in the culinary arts. A culinarian working in restaurants is commonly known as a cook or a chef. Culinary artists are responsible for skillfully preparing meals  that are as pleasing to the palate as to the eye. Increasingly they are required to have a knowledge of the science of food and an understanding of diet and nutrition. They work primarily in restaurants, fast food chain store franchises, delicatessens, hospitals  and other institutions. Kitchen conditions vary depending on the type of business, restaurant, nursing home etc.

Careers in culinary arts

Related careers

There are a wide variety of opportunities in the culinary arts profession. Below is a non-exhaustive list at some opportunities available to those interested in working as culinary professionals.

- Chefs and cooks - Work directly with the preparation at food for service in various establishments including full-service restaurants, catering facilities, institutional dining, corporate dining, and various other venues.

- Dining Room Service-The profession of managing a restaurant. Associate, bachelor, and graduate degree programs are offered in restaurant management by community colleges, junior colleges, and some universities in the United States.

- Food and Beverage Managers - Manage all food and beverage outlets in hotels and other large establishments

- Food and Beverage Controllers - Purchase and source ingredients in large hotels as well as manage the stores and stock control.

- Consultants and Design Specialists - Works with restaurant owners in development of menus, layout and design of dining room and establishing cosina protocols.

- Salespeople - Introduce chefs and business owners to new products and are able to demonstrate the proper use at equipment. They may sell any range at products needed in the industry from various food products to equipment.

- Teachers - teach others how to pursue goals in culinary arts.

- Food Writers and Food Critics - Establish a public contact with the public on food trends, chefs and restaurants. Many write for newspapers, magazines and some publish books. Notables in this field include Julia Child, Craig Claiborne and James Beard.

- Food Stylists and Photographers - Work with magazines, books, catalogs and promotional and advertising to make them visually appealing.

- Research and Development Kitchens - Develop new products for commercial manufacturers, they can also be test kitchens for publications or others can be kitchens for restaurant chains or grocery chains.

- Entrepreneurship. Many culinarians develop their own business with examples including restaurants, bakeries, specialty food manufacture (chocolates, cheese etc).

Occupational outlook

The occupation outlook for chefs, restaurant managers, dieticians, and nutritionists  is fairly good, with "as fast as the average" growth.  Increasingly a college education with formal qualifications is required for success in this field. It has been recorded that 54% of all Culinary art professionals are female.

Culinary colleges around the world

North America:

- International Culinary School at The Art Institutes (41 locations in North America)

- United States of America:

   - Cypress Community College Hotel, Restaurant Management, & Culinary Arts Program in Anaheim[3]

   - California School of Culinary Arts, Pasadena, California

   - California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California

   - Sullivan University Louisville, Kentucky

   - California State University Hospitality Management Education Initiative[4]

   - Cooking and Hospitality Institute of Chicago

   - Classic Cooking Academy, Scottsdale, Arizona

   - Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park, NY

   - Culinary Institute of America at Grey Stone in St. Helena, California

   - Institute for the Culinary Arts at Metropolitan Community College,Omaha, Nebraska

   - Johnson and Wales University (RI,FL,NC,CO)

   - Kendall College in Chicago, Illinois

   - L'Ecole Culinaire in Saint Louis, Missouri and Memphis, Tennessee

   - Lincoln College of Technology

   - Manchester Community College in Connecticut

   - New England Culinary Institute in Vermont

   - Orlando Culinary Academy

   - Pennsylvania Culinary Institute

   - Scottsdale Culinary Institute

   - Texas Culinary Academy

   - The Culinary Institute of Charleston, South Carolina

   - The Restaurant School at Walnut Hill College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,

   - Coosa Valley Technical College; Rome, GA


   - Camosun College, (Victoria, BC)

   - George Brown College, (Toronto, ON)

   - Le Cordon Bleu Culinary Arts Institute, (Ottawa, ON)

   - Liaison College (several Ontario locations, including Barrie, Brampton, Hamilton, Kitchener, Oakville and Toronto)

   - Niagara Culinary Institute, Niagara College, Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON

   - Pacific Institute of Culinary Arts, (Vancouver, BC)

   - The Culinary Institute of Canada (Charlottetown, PE)

   - NSCC Canada (Nova Scotia)

   - Canadore College (North Bay, ON)


- Westminster Kingsway College (London)

- Culinary Arts, Cork Institute of Technology(CIT) Cork, Ireland

- School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, DIT, Dublin, Ireland

- Scuola di Arte Culinaria Cordon Bleu, Florence, Italy

- Apicius International School of Hospitality, Florence, Italy

- École hôtelière de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

- DCT University Center, Vitznau, Switzerland

- Institut Paul Bocuse, Ecully, France

- Le Cordon Bleu, Paris, France

- École des trois gourmandes, Paris, France

- Ecole Hôtelière du Périgord, Périgueux, France

- HRC Culinary Academy, Bulgaria


- School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, Africa

Australia and New Zealand:

- North Shore International Academy, Auckland, New Zealand


- International School Of Tourism and Hospitality Management

- Universidad del Este, Puerto Rico, USA

Latin America:

- Academia de Artes Culinarias de Guatemala, Guatemala.


- Hong Kong Culinary Academy, Penasia School of Continuing Education, Hong Kong

- Cilantro Culinary Academy, Malaysia

- School of Hospitality, Tourism & Culinary Arts, KDU College, Malaysia

- Taylor's College, School of Hospitality & Tourism, Malaysia

- Center for Culinary Arts, Manila, Philippines

- Culinary Academy Of India, Hyderabad, India

- MOST InstituteAngeles,Pampanga Philippines

- Sebu Institute of Culinary Arts (SICA), Visayan Federation

Middle East:

- International Centre for Culinary Arts, Dubai (ICCA Dubai)


- Le Cordon Bleu (locations in 20 countries)

List of food companies

- Sanitarium

- Category:Food companies of Australia


- Maple Leaf Foods

- McCain Foods Limited


- Category:Food companies of China

- Amoy Food

- Category:Food manufacturers of Hong Kong


- Bakkavör

- C&C Group plc

- Nestlé

- Barilla Group

- Unilever

- Danone

- Ferrero SpA

- Parmalat

- Yoplait


- Indofood

- Garudafood

- Sosro

- Dua Kelinci


- Amul

- Britannia Industries

- Dabur

- Haldiram's

- Marico

- Heritage Foods

- Hindustan Unilever

- Mother Dairy

- Parle Agro


- Ajinomoto

- Toyo Suisan

- Nissin Foods

- Ezaki Glico

- Morinaga

- Meiji Seika

- Kikkoman


- Del Monte Kenya

New Zealand

- Emerson's Brewery

- Griffin's Foods

- McCashins Brewery

- Monteith's

- Speight's

- Whitestone cheese

- Wigram Beer


- Mitchell's Fruit Farms Limited


- San Miguel Corporation


- Lactogal


- Bee Cheng Hiang

- BreadTalk

- Yeo Hiap Seng

South Korea

- Category:Food manufacturers of South Korea

- Gyeonggi Snack Company

- Lotte Confectionery

Trinidad and Tobago

- Flavorite Ice Cream


- Efes Beverage Group

- Tekel Birası

- Ülker

United Kingdom

- Premier Foods

- United Biscuits


- Sandora

United States

- Atkins Nutritionals

- Annie's Homegrown

- Appalachian Brewing Company

- Auntie Anne's

- Blackjack Pizza

- Boston Market

- ConAgra Foods

- Campbell Soup Company

- Dean Foods

- Frontier Natural Products Co-op

- General Mills

- Hormel

- Kellogg Company

- Kraft Foods

- Mars

- Ocean Spray

- Odwalla

- PepsiCo

- Pinnacle Foods

- Ralcorp

List of brand name soft drinks products
Carbonated drinks

1. Coca-Cola Company

- Appletiser or Appletise

- Aquarias

- Barq's

- Coca-Cola

  * Coca-Cola Relentless

  * Coca-Cola With Orange

  * New Coke

  * Coca-Cola C2

- Coca-Cola Zero

- Sprite Zero

- Grapetiser[citation needed]

- Peartiser[citation needed]

- Vault (soft drink)

  * Vault Red Blitz

- Leed

- Lilt

- Diet Coke

  * Diet Coke with Lime

  * Diet Coke Lemon

- Coke Lite

- Fanta

  * Wild Strawberry Fanta ((fact}}

  * Strawberry Fanta[citation needed]

- Fresca

- Sprite

- Tab

  * Tab Clear

  * Coca Cola Black Cherry

2. PepsiCo brands

- Mirinda

- Mountain Dew

  * Diet Mountain Dew

  * Caffeine Free Mountain Dew

  * Mountain Dew Code Red

  * Mountain Dew Live Wire

  * Mountain Dew Baja Blast

  * Mountain Dew Revolution (Discontinued)

  * Mountain Dew Super Nova (Discontinued)

  * Mountain Dew Voltage

  * Mountain Dew Pitch Black (Discontinued)

  * Mountain Dew Pitch Black II (Discontinued)

  * MDX

  * AMP Energy

- Mug Root Beer

- Pepsi

  * Pepsi Cola

  * Pepsi Blue

  * Pepsi Max

  * Pepsi Jazz Strawberries &Cream

  * Pepsi Jazz Black Cherry & Vanilla

- Sierra Mist

3. Cadbury Schweppes

- Dr Pepper

- Canada Dry

- 7-Up

  * 7-Up Free

  * Cherry 7Up

- Orangina

- Dr Pepper Cherry Vanilla


- Jolt Cola

- Mecca Cola

- Panda Cola

- Panda Pops (drinks brand)

- Sport Cola

- Virgin Vanilla Cola


- Cresta (soft drink)

- R.Whites

- Corona (soft drink)

- Larkspur (lemonade)

- Monster (energy drink)

Citrus Soda

- Britvic

  * Britvic 55

- Tango (drink)

  * Tango Clear

  * Tango Ice Blast

- Cariba (drink) : See Lilt ( based on [1])

- Sunkist

- Tropicana Tw!ster Soda


- Ayodhyacola.com  : Ginger beer,Root Beer, Cream soda ,Lemonade

Others and unsorted

- Barr

  * Irn Bru

  * Tizer

                + Tizer Fruitz[citation needed]

                + Tizer "ItzRed" Colourz[citation needed]

- Bawls

- Carters Refreshing Root Beer

- Dr Brown's

- Fizz

- Freekee

- Kinnie

- Lucozade

- Peanuts (drink)

- Pocari Sweat

- Oronamin C Drink

- Red Bull

- Schweppes Tonic

- Sodastream

- Julmust

Mineral Water

- Volvic

  * Volvic Splash[citation needed]

  * Volvic Revive [3]

- Buxton

- Highland Spring

- Perrier

- Vittel

  * Vittel Raspberry[citation needed]

- Voss (water)

- Monster Ausalt

- Monster Moca

- Monster

- Amp

- Rockstar

- Big Buzz

- Double D'S


- Tropicana

  * Tropicana Pure Premium Fibre

  * Tropicana Festive Blend

- T and T Jazz Berry Alternative Fruit Mix Drink

- Pomegreat

- Minute Maid

- Britvic

- Bellywashers

Squash & Cordials

- Ribena

- Robinsons (drink)

- Robinsons For Milk

- Vimto

- Sunny Delight

- Kia-Ora

Milk (and related)

- Alpro Soya Milk (for now see Alpro)

- Yazoo Chill

- Nestle Ski StopGap 24/7

- Nesquik

- Hyper Cow

- Marvel (milk)

- Frij

- Crusha

- YooHoo

Hot Drinks

- AktaVite

- Typhoo (tea)

- Tetley (tea)

- Take One Chocolate Instantly

- Nescafe

- Maxwell House

- PG Tips (Unilever)

- Ovaltine

- Horlicks

- Poopeis[citation needed]

Miscellaneous and unsorted

- Tree Top (drinks brand)

- Trendy Pops (drinks brand)

- Unilever Adez

- Unibev Jelly Juice

- Squirt

- Softa - Kenya

- Solo (Australia)/Solo (Norway)

- Quatro

- Liptonice

- Cocoa Shot

- Meri-Mate

- Hi-Spot (drinks brand)

- Boo Bee Juice

- Bruce & Clarke

- Sosro (Indonesia)

Companies/Parent brands

- Rodwells

- R. Whites

List of vegetable oils
Edible oils

Major oils

Sunflowers are the source of Sunflower oil.

These oils account for a significant fraction of worldwide edible oil production. All are also used as fuel oils.

- Coconut oil, a cooking oil, high in saturated fat, particularly used in baking and cosmetics.

- Corn oil, a common cooking oil with little odor or taste.

- Cottonseed oil, used in manufacturing potato chips and other snack foods.

- Olive oil, used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.

- Palm oil, the most widely produced tropical oil. Popular in West African and Brazilian cuisine. Also used to make biofuel.

- Peanut oil (Ground nut oil), a clear oil used for dressing salads and, due to its high smoke point, especially used for frying.

- Rapeseed oil, including Canola oil, one of the most widely used cooking oils.

- Safflower oil, produced for export for over 50 years, first for use in paint industry, now mostly as a cooking oil.[11]

- Sesame oil, cold pressed as light cooking oil, hot pressed for a darker and stronger flavor.[12]

- Soybean oil, produced as a byproduct of processing soy meal.[13]

- Sunflower oil, a common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel.[14]

Nut oils

Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel, used to make Hazelnut oil.

Nut oils are generally used in cooking, for their flavor. They are also quite costly, because of the difficulty of extracting the oil.

- Almond oil, used as an edible oil, but primarily in the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs.[15]

- Cashew oil, somewhat comparable to olive oil. May have value for fighting dental cavities.[16]

- Hazelnut oil, mainly used for its flavor. Also used in skin care, because of its slight astringent nature.[17][18]

- Macadamia oil, strongly flavored, contains no trans fat, and a good balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.[19]

- Mongongo nut oil (or manketti oil), from the seeds of the Schinziophyton rautanenii, a tree which grows in South Africa. High in vitamin E. Also used in skin care.[20]

- Pecan oil, valued as a food oil, but requiring fresh pecans for good quality oil.[21]

- Pine nut oil usually added to foods as a flavoring agent.

- Pistachio oil, strongly flavored oil, particularly for use in salads.[22]

- Walnut oil, used for its flavor, also used by Renaissance painters in oil paints.[23][24]

Oils from melon and gourd seeds

Watermelon seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris, is used in cooking in West Africa.

Members of the cucurbitaceae include gourds, melons, pumpkins, and squashes. Seeds from these plants are noted for their oil content, but little information is available on methods of extracting the oil. In most cases, the plants are grown as food, with dietary use of the oils as a byproduct of using the seeds as food.[25]

- Bottle gourd oil, extracted from the seeds of the Lagenaria siceraria, widely grown in tropical regions throughout the world. Used medicinally and as an edible oil.[26]

- Buffalo gourd oil, from the seeds of the Cucurbita foetidissima, a vine with a rank odor, native to southwest North America.[27]

- Pumpkin seed oil, a specialty cooking oil, produced in Austria and Slovenia. Poor tolerance for high temperatures.[28]

- Watermelon seed oil, pressed from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris. Traditionally used in cooking in West Africa.[29]

Food supplements

A number of oils are used as food supplements, for their nutrient content or medical effect.

- Acai oil, from the fruit of several species of the Açaí Palm (Euterpe). Grown in the Amazon region. Similar to grape seed oil. They are used in cosmetics and as a food supplement.[30]

- Blackcurrant seed oil, used as a food supplement, because of high content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.[31]

- Borage seed oil, similar to blackcurrant seed oil, used primarily medicinally.[32]

- Evening primrose oil, used as a food supplement for its purported medicinal properties.[33]

Other edible oils

Carob seed pods, used to make carob pod oil.

- Amaranth oil, high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids, used in food and cosmetic industries.[34]

- Apricot oil, similar to, but much cheaper than almond oil, which it resembles. Only obtained from certain cultivars.[35]

- Apple seed oil, used in cosmetics and shampoos.[36] Also used as an edible oil.[37]

- Argan oil, a food oil from Morocco that has also attracted recent attention in Europe.[38]

- Artichoke oil, extracted from the seeds of the Cynara cardunculus. Similar in use and composition to safflower and sunflower oil.[39]

- Avocado oil, a nutty-flavored culinary oil, also used as a base for infusions.[40] Also used in cosmetics.[41] Unusually high smoke point of 510°F.[42]

- Babassu oil, similar to, and used as a substitute for, coconut oil.[43]

- Ben oil, extracted from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera. High in behenic acid. Extremely stable edible oil. Also suitable for biofuel.[44]

- Borneo tallow nut oil, extracted from the fruit of species of genus Shorea. Used as a substitute for cocoa butter, and to make soap, candles, cosmetics and medicines.[45]

- Cape Chestnut oil, otherwise known as Yangu oil, is a popular oil in African skin care.

- Carob pod oil (Algaroba oil), from carob, used medicinally.[46]

- Cassia oil, made from Cinnamon, this spiced oil is used to flavour Easter biscuits

- Cocoa butter, from the cacao plant. Used in the manufacture of chocolate, as well as in some cosmetics.

- Cocklebur oil, from species of genus Xanthium, with similar properties to poppyseed oil, similar in taste and smell to sunflower oil.[47][48]

- Cohune oil, from the Attalea cohune (cohune palm), similar to coconut oil in makeup and usage[49]

Coriander seeds are the source of an edible pressed oil, Coriander seed oil.

- Coriander seed oil, from coriander seeds, used medicinally. Also used as a flavoring agent in pharmaceutical and food industries.[50]

- Dika oil, from Irvingia gabonensis seeds, native to West Africa. Used to make margarine, soap and pharmaceuticals, where is it being examined as a tablet lubricant. Largely underdeveloped. [51][52]

- False flax oil made of the seeds of Camelina sativa, available in Russia as ryjhikovoye maslo (рыжиковое масло). Considered promising as a food or fuel oil.[53]

- Flax seed oil (called linseed oil when used as a drying oil). High in omega 3 and lignans, which can be used medicinally. Easily turns rancid.[54]

- Grape seed oil, suitable for cooking at high temperatures. Also used as a salad oil, and in cosmetics.[55]

- Hemp oil, a high quality food oil.[56]

- Kapok seed oil, used as an edible oil, and in soap production.[57]

- Kenaf Seed oil a fibre plant similar to Hemp.

- Lallemantia oil, from the seeds of Lallemantia iberica, discovered at archaeological sites in northern Greece.[58]

- Marula oil, extracted from the kernel of Sclerocarya birrea. Used in the food and cosmetic industry, it has strong antioxidant and moisturising properties.[59]

- Meadowfoam seed oil, highly stable oil, with over 98% long-chain fatty acids. Competes with rapeseed oil for industrial applications. [60]

- Mustard oil (pressed), used in India as a cooking oil. Also used as a massage oil.[61]

- Nutmeg butter, extracted by expression from the fruit of cogeners of genus Myristica. Nutmeg butter has a large amount of trimyristin. Nutmeg oil, by contrast, is an essential oil, extracted by steam distillation.[62]

- Okra seed oil (Hibiscus seed oil), from the seed of the Hibiscus esculentus. Composed predominantly of oleic and linoleic acids.[63] The greenish yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor.[64]

- Papaya seed oil.

- Perilla seed oil, high in omega-3 fatty acids. Used as an edible oil, for medicinal purposes, in skin care products and as a drying oil.[65]

- Pequi oil, extracted from the seeds of Caryocar brasiliense. Used in Brazil as a highly prized cooking oil.[66]

- Pine nut oil. An expensive food oil, from pine nuts, used in salads and as a condiment. [67]

Poppy seeds, used to make poppyseed oil

- Poppyseed oil, used for cooking,[68] moisturizing skin,[69] in paints and varnishes,[70] and in soaps.

- Prune kernel oil, marketed as a gourmet cooking oil.[71]

- Quinoa oil, similar in composition and use to corn oil.[72]

- Ramtil oil, pressed from the seeds of the one of several species of genus Guizotia abyssinica (Niger pea) in India and Ethiopia. Used for both cooking and lighting.[73]

- Rice bran oil, suitable for high temperature cooking. Widely used in Asia.[74]

- Royle oil, pressed from the seeds of Prinsepia utilis, a wild, edible oil shrub that grows in the higher Himalayas. Used medicinally in Nepal.[75]

- Sacha Inchi oil, from the Peruvian Amazon. High in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.[76]

- Tea seed oil (Camellia oil), widely used in southern China as a cooking oil. Also used in making soaps, hair oils and a variety of other products.[77]

- Thistle oil, pressed from the seeds of Silybum marianum. Relatively unstable. Also used for skin care products.[78]

- Tigernut oil (or nut-sedge oil) is pressed from the tuber of Cyperus esculentus. It has properties similar to soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils.[79] It is used in cooking and making soap[80] and has potential as a biodiesel fuel.[79]

- Tomato seed oil. High in unsaturated fats and lysine. Potentially useful as a protein supplement.[81]

- Wheat germ oil, used as a dietary supplement, and for its "grainy" flavor. Also used medicinally. Highly unstable
List of snack foods

- Tea sandwich


- Obatzda

- String cheese


- Banana chips/Plantain chips

- Cheese curls

- Cheese puffs

- Cheez-It

- Combos

- Corn chips

- Nachos

- Pita chips

- Bagel chips

- Pretzels

- Potato chips

- Veggie Chips

- Pork rind

- Snack Mix

- Sunflower Chips

- Twisties

- Tortilla chips

- Straw Crisps

- Sun Chips


- Cookies/Biscuits

- Doughnuts

- Tastykakes

- Jaffa cake

- Fairy bread

- Leary Biscuit

- Toaster pastries


- chocolate bars

- chocolate truffles

- confections

- caramels

- marshmallows

- nerds

- Pixy Stix

- candy bars

- jelly beans

- gummy bears

- licorice

- lollipops

- candy canes

- gumdrops

- taffy

- macaroons

- Mike and Ikes

- Puppy chow

- fairy cakes


- Bonda

- Pakora

- Khanom buang

- Croquettes

- Cokodok

- Poffertjes


- Bombay mix/Bhuja

- Chakri noodles

- Cup noodles

- Mamee


- Dried fruit

- Fruit snacks

- grapes

- Bambeanos

- Banana boats

- Tostón

apples bananas


- Peanuts

- Cashews

- Almonds

- Pistachio nuts

- Pumpkin seeds

- Sunflower seeds

- Corn nuts

- Coconut

- Soy nuts

- Mixed nuts

- Popcorn

- Granola

- Trail mix, gorp, scroggin


- Cola

- Slurpee / Icee / Slush Puppie

- Gatorade

- Root Beer / root beer float

- Red Bull

- milkshake

- chocolate milk

- Sprite

- Vault

- Coffee

- lemonade

- kool aid

Other snacks

- Beef Jerky

- Crackers

- Energy bars

- French fries

- Ice cream

- Onion rings

- Tuna Snacks

- Sesame sticks

- Ada

- Rice Krispie treats

- S'mores

- Pops

- Soused herring


- Pakora

- Çiğ köfte

- Dolma

- Geplak

- Grass jelly

- Kibbe Nayye

- Leblebi

- Meze

- Nian gao

- Sev mamra

- Tapas

Bumbu , buah dan Sayur
Ikan pari biasa di sebut ikan pe adalah jenis ikan
Lele (clarias), ikan lele mempunyai nama yang berb
Sarden (Sardine) adalah ikan dalam kelompok Clupe
Makarel atau makerel dalam bahasa inggris mackere
Ikan Bawal (Pomfrets) berasal dari kelompok Carang
Ikan kakap (Snapper) memiliki lebih dari 113 spesi
Jeroan positif dan negatif

l 2007-07-09 21:36:20

Bookmark this page :
Add to: Del.icio.us Add to: Digg Add to: StumbleUpon Add to: Google Add to: Yahoo

Siapa yang tidak kenal jerohan? Rasanya hampir semua orang tahu dan mengenal jerohan dengan baik. Jerohan memang banyak macamnya tapi yang biasa dikonsumsi berupa: usus, hati, babat, lidah, jantung, dan otak.

Namun sayang, jerohan seringkali dianggap sebagai biang kerok timbulnya berbagai penyakit berbahaya seperti: jan­tung koroner, stroke, dan asam urat. Se­hingga sering kali jerohan ini dihindari dan ditabukan. Tapi sebagian orang tetap tidak peduli, terbukti masih banyak pe-ngunjung yang memadati restoran, rumah makan, kafe ataupun warung de-ngan berbagai jenis makanan lezat berbahan jerohan, seperti gulai otak, pare goreng, sate Padang, soto Makassar, ataupun soto Betawi.

Lalu benarkah jerohan boleh dinikmati? Ataukah harus dihindari? Sejauh mana ba­hayanya dan adakah manfaatnya?


Di beberapa negara maju seperti Amerika, jerohan tidak biasa dikonsumsi manusia. Jerohan umumnya dibuang atau dipakai untuk pakan ternak (makanan bi­natang perliharaan / pet) karena dianggap terlalu beresiko bila dikonsumsi manusia. Jerohan dianggap sebagai tempat nya­man bagi berbagai agen penyakit yang membahayakan manusia. Sebaliknya didi beberapa negara lain, justru jerohan menjadi santapan spesial.
      Jerohan ternyata tidak hanya digandrungi dan dikonsumsi di Indonesia saja. Di negara Brazil, Philiphina, Pakistan, Lebanon, India, atau negara-negara Timur Tengah, jerohan seringkali dijumpai tidak saja dalam hidangan rumahan tetapi dihidangkan pula di restoran-restoran.
     Di Jepang, jerohan biasanya diolah sebagai campuran yakitori yaitu sate khas Jepang berbahan dasar daging ayam atau daging sapi diselang-seling dengan kulit, hati, jantung, atau ampela ayam yang dibakar dan dihidangkan bersama sake. Di Brazil, ada menu bernama churrasco yaitu jantung ayam panggang dan Feijoada, rebusan kacang merah atau hitam dicampur dengan daging dan jerohan sapi. Begitu pula di Libanon, jerohan sangat populer dibuat nikhaat (otak kambing berbumbu) sebagai isi roti.

Hati merupakan organ utama tubuh bagian dalam dari hewan. Substansi yang beracun lebih banyak ditemui pada hati dibandingkan bagian tubuh lainnya. Hati ayam dan hati sapi berwarna merah agak kecokelatan, lembut dan mudah hancur tetapi bila dipanaskan (proses pengolahan) akan mengeras.
Jantung merupakan organ tubuh bagian dalam yang memiliki serabut, berukuran relatif kecil, lembut dan berwarna merah kecokelatan. Jantung sapi, kambing atau ayam yang banyak disukai.
Ginjal hewan berwarna merah tua. Ginjal kambing memiliki 1 cuping, sedangkan ginjal sapi dan lembu memiliki beberapa cuping. Ginjal hewan yang masih muda sangat lembut bila disentuh dan memiliki aroma yang khas, sedangkan ginjal hewan yang tua lebih keras ketika disentuh, terasa pahit, dan memiliki bau amis menyengat.
Babat merupakan bagian perut hewan ruminansia, seperti sapi. Babat masih segar berwarna putih kelabu atau
krem kehijauan. Namun di pasaran ada babat yang berwarna putih bersih. Warna itu didapat melalui proses bleaching (diputihkan) terlebih dahulu yang umumnya menggunakan bahan kimia, bila tidak hati-hati akan menimbulkan dampak buruk terhadap kesehatan.
Merupakan organ muskular yang berwarna merah jambu atau abu-abu. Lidah diselimuti oleh membran muskus yang tebal dan bertekstur kasar. Sebelum diolah, membran ini terlebih dahulu dihilangkan dengan cara mengulitinya. Lidah sapi jauh lebih besar dan tebal di-banding hewan lainnya, beratnya ± 2-3 kg.
Usus yaitu organ bagian dalam hewan yang merupakan sistem pencemaan, bermula dari lambung hingga anus. Usus terdiri dari dua bagian: usus kecil dan usus besar. Usus sapi berwarna merah kecokelatan, sedangkan usus ayam warnanya kuning kecokelatan.
Berbeda dengan jenis jerohan lainnya, usus mudah rusak dan terkontaminasi oleh penyakit lainnya. Bila tidak segera ditangani (diber­sihkan dari sisa kotoran) selama lebih dari 4 jam setelah disembelih, usus terse-but sudah tidak layak untuk dikonsumsi.
Otak merupakan jenis jerohan yang paling digemari. Otak memiliki tekstur lembut dan berwarna putih keabu-abuan. Umumnya otak sapi dan kambing-lah yang banyak diolah.


Secara umum jerohan banyak mengandung zat gizi, diantaranya karbohi­drat, protein, lemak, vitamin dan mineral. Jerohan juga mengandung kolesterol tinggi.
Vitamin utama yang ada dalam jerohan yaitu vitamin B khususnya vitamin B1 B12 , asam folat. Selain itu juga mengandung vitamin A terutama pada hati. Sedangkan mineral yang terdapat dalam jerohan diantaranya zat besi, potasium, magnesium, fosfor, zinc dan lain sebagainya.

Meskipun banyak mengandung kolesterol, namun jerohan juga mempunyai manfaat bagi kesehatan diantaranya :

Mencegah dan Mengatasi Anemia
Anemia atau lebih dikenal dengan sebutan penyakit kurang darah, me­rupakan penyakit yang diakibatkan keku­rangan asam folat dan zat besi.
Asam folat merupakan bahan essensial untuk sintesis DNA dan RNA yang penting untuk metabolisme inti sel terma­suk sel darah merah. Sedangkan zat besi merupakan unsur yang penting dalam pembentukan sel darah merah. Bila terja­di gangguan dalam pembentukan sel da­rah merah, maka kadar hemoglobin (Hb) dalam darah menjadi tidak normal. Kon­disi ini membuat fungsi Hb sebagai pem­bawa oksigen ke seluruh tubuh tergang­gu. Akibatnya tubuh terasa lemah, letih, lesu, dan muka pucat. Asam folat dan zat besi banyak terdapat pada hati.

Menyehatkan Otak
Jerohan terutama hati, jantung, dan ginjal banyak mengandung vitamin B yang berguna bagi kesehatan otak. Semua jenis vitamin B merupakan zat gizi yang penting bagi kesiapan kerja sistem sel-sel syaraf manusia. Kekurangan vitamin B12 dapat menyebabkan gangguan pada selaput syaraf, hilangnya sejumlah memori serta bi­la berlanjut dapat menyebabkan terjadinya dimentia (kepikunan) bahkan gangguan mental yang lebih parah.
Penggunaan glukosa otak sebagai sumber energi untuk disalurkan ke seluruh tubuh juga terhalang. Sedangkan keku­rangan thiamin (vitamin B1) akan menye­babkan penurunan kecepatan motorik, kekacauan mental, gangguan pada daya ingat dan fungsi kognitif.

Baik Bagi Ibu Hamil
Ibu hamil termasuk ke dalam kelompok rawan gizi. Kekurangan gizi yang ter­jadi selama masa kehamilan dapat berdampak cukup besar terhadap proses pertumbuhan dan perkembangan janin. Asam folat dan zat besi merupakan zat gizi yang berperan. karena biasanya ibu hamil cenderung mengalami defisiensi kedua jenis zat gizi tersebut.
Asam folat sangat dibutuhkan untuk perkembangan sistem saraf dan mence­gah terjadinya kecacatan pada bayi se­perti kecacatan pada otak dan sumsum tulang belakang. Kebutuhan asam folat akan meningkat sebanyak 150 pg per hari di masa kehamilan. Kekurangan asam folat selama masa kehamilan me­nyebabkan bayi lahir dengan bibir sum­bing, berat badan rendah, down syndrom dan keguguran. Kelainan lain yaitu bayi mengalami gangguan buang air besar dan kecil, tidak dapat berjalan dengan tegak dan emosi anak cenderung tinggi.
Ibu hamil juga seringkali mengalami anemia akibat kekurangan zat besi. Ke­naikan volume darah secara pesat pada ibu hamil akan meningkatkan kebutuhan zat besi. Mereka membutuhkan tamba­han zat besi sebanyak 20 mg/hari.
Oleh karena itu jerohan tertentu seperti hati dan ginjal mempunyai peran yang penting ketika masa kehamilan, karena mengandung asam folat dan zat besi. Walau bermanfaat hendaknya jero­han ini dikonsumsi dengan jumlah yang tepat karena kolesterolnya cukup tinggi.

Meningkatkan Sistem Kekebalan Tubuh
Zinc dan vitamin A pada sebagian jerohan sangat baik untuk memelihara ke­sehatan jaringan epitel termasuk en­dotelium pada pembuluh darah. Kedua zat gizi tersebut membantu mencegah kerusakan pembuluh darah dan dika­takan oleh beberapa ahli bahwa vitamin A dan zinc secara signifikan membantu meningkatkan sistem kekebalan tubuh.]
Kadar vitamin A yang rendah mem­buat tubuh rentan terhadap serangan in­feksi (virus, bakteri maupun mikroorga­nisme berbahaya). Selain itu kekurangan vitamin A juga dapat menyebabkan ter­jadinya penyakit autoimun. Secara siner­gis, zinc, dan vitamin A dapat melindungi sel darah putih dari kerusakan akibat se­rangan radikal bebas.


Meskipun Jerohan mempunyai segi positif dan sangat nikmat untuk disantap, tetapi jangan terlena, karena bahaya meng­intai Anda. Konsumsi jerohan berlebih dan tidak tepat dapat berakibat buruk.

Kandungan Kolesterol
Beberapa jenis jerohan mengandung kholesterol yang sangat tinggi terutama otak, hati dan usus. Kolesterol merupakan fraksi lemak yang biasa terdapat dalam aliran darah dan seluruh sel dalam tubuh. Kolesterol senantiasa ada dalam tubuh dan mempunyai fungsi yang penting
Kolesterol sangat diperlukan dalam berbagai proses metabolisme tubuh, mi­salnya sebagai bahan pembentuk din-ding sel, membantu proses pembuatan asam empedu untuk mengemulsi le­mak. Dibutuhkan juga untuk membantu pembentukan vitamin D, berperan seba­gai bahan pembuat hormon-hormon sex dan kortikosteroid.
Kadar kolesterol yang berlebih dalam darah sangat berbahaya. Kadar kolesterol yang ideal yaitu 200 mg/c11. Tngginya kadar kolesterol melebihi angka normal dapat meningkatkan resiko terkena penyakit jan­tung koroner atau stroke, karena menye­babkan plak pada pembuluh darah arteri sehingga terjadi penyempitan yang disebut atherosklerosis.

Kandungan Purin
Pada umumnya jerohan juga memiliki kandungan purin yang cukup tinggi, se­hingga dapat memicu terjadinya penya­kit asam urat (gout).
Gout yaitu penyakit yang disebabkan tingginya asam urat dalam darah. Ditandai dengan pembengkakan sendi-sendi lutut dan jari-jari disertai rasa nyeri yang luar biasa. Kondisi ter­sebut dikarenakan terjadinya penumpu­kan kristal-kristal garam urat di tempat­tempat tersebut. Keadaan ini disebab­kan banyaknya sisa pembuangan metabolisme purin sedangkan pengeluaran­nya melalui urine sangat sedikit.
Seseorang yang kadar asam urat dalam darahnya melebihi batas normal (diatas 7 mg/dL) beresiko tinggi menderita penyakit gout, dan harus waspada mes­kipun keluhan-keluhan yang dirasakan be­lum berarti. Untuk itu hindari dan batasi konsumsi makanan yang kandungan purinnya tinggi (100-1000 mg/100 gr bahan pangan), terutama jerohan.

Mengingat begitu banyak manfaat jerohan, sebaiknya jerohan tidak dipho­bikan tetapi konsumsilah secara bijak agar tidak menimbulkan berbagai keluh­an, terutama kemungkinan timbulnya penyakit gout, jantung koroner, stroke atau jenis-jenis penyakit degeneratif lain yang berbahaya. Batasi frekuensi dan jumlahnya.
Seringkali karena kelezatan dan rasa gurih membuat orang terlena. Imbangi dengan mengkonsumsi pangan berserat, seperti sayuran, kacang-kacangan dan buah-buahan.
Perbanyak pula olah raga, karena olah raga yang rutin dapat meningkatkankadar kolesterol baik (HDL) dan menu­runkan kadar kolesterol jahat (LDL).
Selain itu, saat membeli jerohan pilihlah yang masih segar, sebab jerohan mudah sekali rusak dibandingkan bahan pangan hewani lain. Jerohan yang masih segar memiliki warna yang sama ketika pertama kali dipotong, lembab dengan permukaan tidak berlumpur, beraroma segar dan tidak terendam air. Air mem­percepat pembusukan. Hindari jerohan dengan ciri-ciri sebagai berikut:

- Hati: mulai berwarna abu-abu
- Jantung: berwarna merah gelap dan berbau asam urik.
- Ginjal: warna ungu, berbau amoniak.
- Babat: putih bersih, berbau amoniak.
- Lidah: berbintik-bintik hitam
- Usus: berlendir dan berbau amoniak
- Otak: berbintik hitam dan terdapat gumpalan darah

Jerohan yang sudah dibeli hendaknya segera diolah sebab jika tidak, akan cepat berubah aroma. Pergunakan air perasan jeruk nipis atau lemon untuk menghilangkan bau amis ketika akan mengolahnya.
Jika tidak segera diolah, masukkan dalam lemari pendingin namun jangan lebih dari satu atau dua hari. Penyim­pananya harus dipisahkan dari bahan makanan lainnya. Sebaiknya jerohan dibungkus dengan aluminium foil dalam freezer agar lebih tahan lama.
Jerohan dapat diolah menjadi masakan yang beraneka ragam. Selain itu je­rohan terutama hati seringkali digunakan sebagai campuran pada makanan bayi dan balita mengingat begitu besar man­faatnya terutama dalam membantu pro­ses tumbuh kembang. •





design @ 2007, eresep.com. more information about eresep.com please contact info@eresep.com

network website :
forumsatelit.com [ indonesia broadcast satellite forum community ]